The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. Bolivia's current constitution  was adopted via referendum in 2009, providing for a unitary secular state. By Tim Lambert. The heads of these ministries form the cabinet. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Plurinational Constitutional Court, the Judiciary Council, Agrarian and Environmental Court, and District (departmental) and lower courts. ... 1952-04-09 Hugo Ballivian's government is overthrown by the Bolivian National Revolution, starting a period of agrarian reform, universal suffrage and the nationalisation of tin mines; Elevation of American Legation to Embassy Status, 1942. "We want to start a new stage of our history. Regardless of the opposition, the government plans to submit the document to a referendum in 2008. Its economic growth was retarded, despite the region’s immense mineral wealth and its historical prominence, because the decline in mining during the 18th century had given way to severe depression resulting from the wars of independence. 2008 was a turbulent year in Bolivia. Art. He was succeeded by former general Hugo Bánzer, an ex-dictator turned democrat who became president for the second time in Aug. 1997. Bolivia was ruled by the Conservative Party from 1880 to 1899. Currently, the MAS stands as a party committed to equality, indigenous rights, agrarian land reform, Constitutional reform as well as nationalization of key industries with an aim to redistribute the returns through increased social spending. The right-of-center opposition includes a variety of political parties. history.state.gov 3.0 shell. Congress was reinstated, and in 1982 it returned Hernando Siles Zuazo to the presidency; Jaime Paz Zamora became vice president. The Organ's first elections will be the country's first judicial election in October 2011 and five municipal special elections expected to be held in 2011. The members of the Plurinational Constitutional Court, elected in October 2011, are: Ligia Velásquez, Mirtha Camacho, Melvy Andrade, Zoraida Chanes, Gualberto Cusi, Efraín Choque, and Ruddy Flores. history.state.gov 3.0 shell. The Popular Participation Law of April 1994, which distributes a significant portion of national revenues to municipalities for discretionary use, has enabled previously neglected communities to make striking improvements in their facilities and services. The constitutional capital is the historic city of Sucre, where the Supreme Court is established, but the administrative capital is La Paz, where the executive and legislative branches of government function. The members of the Supreme Court of Justice, elected in October 2011, are: Maritza Suntura (La Paz Department), Jorge Isaac Von Borries Méndez (Santa Cruz), Rómulo Calle Mamani (Oruro), Pastor Segundo Mamani Villca (Potosí), Antonio Guido Campero Segovia (Tarija), Gonzalo Miguel Hurtado Zamorano (Beni), Fidel Marcos Tordoya Rivas (Cochabamba), Rita Susana Nava (Tarija), and Norka Natalia Mercado Guzmán (Pando). Six months later, on December 18, 2005, cocalero leader Evo Morales was elected president. History It is from these here that some of the indigenous people of the Andes originated from. The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a diverse multi-party system. 4, Constitution of the State of Bolivia, Art. Bolivia - Bolivia - Increase in tin mining: The Liberal victory was also closely associated with a basic shift in the Altiplano mining economy. Three political parties were dominant from 1982 to 2005: The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement which had carried out the 1952 Revolution; Revolutionary Left Movement; and Nationalist Democratic Action founded in 1982 by former dictator and later elected President Hugo Banzer. Bolivian History. The people of Bolivia, particularly the veterans, recognized the enormity of the failure of the  Cristina Mamani was elected by her peers as the first president of the Judiciary Council on 4 January 2012. winner of the national election Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada was chosen president by Congress, winning an 84-43 vote against popular vote runner-up Evo Morales.  The elected alternate members are: William Alave (La Paz), María Arminda Ríos García (Santa Cruz), Ana Adela Quispe Cuba (Oruro), Elisa Sánchez Mamani (Potosí), Carmen Núñez Villegas (Tarija), Silvana Rojas Panoso (Beni), María Lourdes Bustamante (Cochabamba), Javier Medardo Serrano (Tarija), and Delfín Humberto Betancour Chinchilla (Pando). Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. Following a joint announcement by the Government of Bolivia and the Government of the United States on January 4, 1942, the Legation of Bolivia in the United States and the Legation of the United States in Bolivia were both raised to the rank of Embassy. In addition, criollos were incensed that Spain reserved all higher administrative positions for peninsulares (Spanish-born persons). Throughout Bolivian history, there have been six periods of time in 1839, 1841, 1848, 1879-1880, and most recently in 2019 in which there has been no head of state. 2008 September - Anti-government protests escalate into violence in the east and north of Bolivia, with 30 people killed in the worst-affected region, the northern province of Pando. Throughout Bolivian history, there have been six periods of time in 1839, 1841, 1848, 1879-1880, and most recently in 2019 in which there has been no head of state. ... Local government was the responsibility of the Royal Audience directed by a President. Bolivian History. Art. The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a diverse multi-party system. Recent History of Bolivia: 1900 - 1950 A.D. , The members of the Agro-environmental Court, elected in October 2011, are (in order of total votes received): Bernardo Huarachi, Deysi Villagómez, Gabriela Armijo Paz, Javier Peñafiel, Juan Ricardo Soto, Lucio Fuentes, and Yola Paucara. © 1989 - 2020 Ideal Education Group S.L. Under this political framework, the President is both the Head of State and the Head of Government. Both the Judiciary and the electoral branch are independent of the executive and the legislature. Although only one-third of Bolivia’s territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the … The main language spoken is Spanish, Quechua and Aymara. During the next year Siles wrestled with disagreements … 94 - Exercise of Municipal Government Functions. Departmental autonomy further increased with the first popular elections for departmental governors, known as prefects, on 18 December 2005. Bolivia’s human history is ancient, with isolated indigenous tribes growing crops and domesticating llamas in Cochabamba and Chuquisaca as long as 5,000 years ago. He resigned in August 2001 and was substituted by his vice president Jorge Fernando Quiroga. The Supreme Court of Justice replaces the Supreme Court, active since Bolivia's founding in 1825. , The civil war between the Conservatives and the Liberals ended in 1899 with the latter's victory; a liberal era began that lasted until 1920. Bolivia Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 1943-12-19 Military coup in Bolivia; 1945-04-18 Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Bolivia established; 1949-05-02 Bolivian state of siege proclaimed; 1952-04-09 Hugo Ballivian's government is overthrown by the Bolivian National Revolution, starting a period of agrarian reform, universal suffrage and the nationalisation of tin mines Mayors are chosen by absolute majority of valid votes. They built a great city called Tiwanaku. The members of the Judiciary Council, elected in October 2011, are (in order of total votes received): Cristina Mamani, Freddy Sanabria, Wilma Mamani, Roger Triveño, and Ernesto Araníbar. The elected alternate members are: Isabel Ortuño, Lidia Chipana, Mario Pacosillo, Katia López, Javier Aramayo, Miriam Pacheco, and Rommy Colque.. 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